For history, you won't have to wander far from your ship. The Bermuda Maritime Museum is right there... and a great place to learn the history of Bermuda, along with many artifacts.
You can also take the #7 bus or the ferry to Hamilton, transfer to the #11 for the aquarium and zoo. On the way back, the #7 bus runs by the South Shore beaches (where you'll find the pink sand), but you'll have to get off to see them. There's also the Botanical Garden which is beautiful, but I don't recall the bus that goes there...maybe the #1...but you should be able to find out at the bus station in Hamilton.
Or, maybe, instead of the aquarium and zoo, spend some time in St. George. The quickest way there is by ferry. There are many historical sites there, as well.