It depends on the airline and port of embarkation. American Air will do luggage check-in at the terminal in some ports (check your airline website). This was REALLY handy on our Alaskan cruise. We checked the luggage at the port, grabbed a rental car and went sight seeing. We had 20 people in our party and three rentals. There would have been no way we would have been able to fit all the luggage into those three cars.
I have not heard of a service that you can do this straight from your cabin pick-up (you need to claim your baggage through customs). But after customs, you may be able to check it in for your flight.
Carnival Cruise Lines:
Fantasy 90, Celebration 95, Victory 05, Conquest 05, Spirit 6/06, Freedom 6/08, Holiday 7/08, Victory 6/09, Valor 9/09, Dream 6/10, Splendor 8/10,Conquest 8/11,Magic 11/11,Triumph 4/12,Spirit 7/12,Freedom 11/12, Triumph 2/13 - The fire cruise
NCL Dream October 2006, RCCL Mariner OTS June 2007, Celebrity Silhouette 2013