Welcome to cruise-chat. I can't tell you the best excursions you might enjoy, but I'll let you know what we did.
Honningsvag - we took a ship tour to North Cape. You can also do this on your own, yet the local bus got very crowded on our cruise (according to fellow travelers who took that option). We had plenty of time at North Cape Hall with the ship tour. Don't miss the museum downstairs. On your way there and back, look for reindeer on the sides of the road.
Tromso: We took a tour, but easy to do on your own. We visited the Arctic Cathedral, botanical gardens, aquarium, and just walked around the town. Tromso was our favorite city on this cruise.
Bergen: Easily done on your own if you want to stay in town. We went up to Mount Floyen by funicular, enjoyed the views from up there, then went back down to the town and wandered about the fish market and surrounding area. Depending upon where you dock, you may be able to walk from your ship, or a shuttle will be offered if you are further out.
I haven't been to your other ports... yet. Enjoy!