That does seem to be a common occurrence in Europe - adding the gratuities to the bill. Speaking of tips being appreciated - years ago, my husband and I were in Spain, and ate in a small restaurant that catered to locals (very few tourists or American military personnel ate there.) We left a (very) small tip, having heard the same thing about European expectations. A week or two later, we ate there again and the management - and wait staff - fell all over us. They couldn't do enough for us! My guess is, the locals didn't tip at all, so even our small one was greatly appreciated. And of course, this was a long time ago!