Well, as you could surmize from the throngs of people posting to tell you about the things to do in Progresso.... the answer is "not much".
Progresso is still not as touristized as Cozumel and is charming from that point of view. But the water is not clear like Cozumel because its on the Gulf side of the Yucatan. SO there is not much in the way of snorkeling. They do have beaches there though. You can have a nice lunch on the beach or visit the shops, but there really is not much else. Most of the tours involve putting you on a bus and driving you into Merdia for "shopping". I'm not a big fan of forced tourist trap visits.
Your other choices would be to see the Mayan ruins. Or just stay on the ship....
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We were in Progreso in April last year and decided we wanted to see some ruins but not take up the entire day. We chose the Dzibilchaltun Ruins, which were small, but still very interesting. The tour guide was excellent and very informed and made the short trip very enjoyable. We were only on the bus for about 35 minutes and got to tour the ruins for about 3.5 hours...long enough to see everything at a relaxed pace...then back to the ship for a late lunch. Wife and I enjoyed it very much, as the cost wasn't expensive, we got a little taste of Mayan culture, and back to the ship without any problems. By the way, we booked thru Carnival to avoid any problems, and the bus was air conditioned...nice! Have fun on whatever you choose to do!
I can answer on the Corona Beach Break ... they definitely did NOT enforce the drinking age when we were there as they served my 15 year old grandson. The "drinks" that they served to us while on the beach were not strong and had little to no alchol in them - I had 3 Margarita's (and I'm not a big drinker) and I felt no effects at all. Most of the activities that they do on the beach would probably appeal to your daughter's age group but be advised that the ones we did while there all included some form of drinking.
The motorized craft that are at the beach can be rented but the cost was really high - something like $45 for 1/2 hour and the water is not pretty blue like in Cozumel.
I also can't recommend the Merida shopping tour as it took you to only one shopping area and none of the vendors would bargain. So we mostly sat in their chairs and waited for those that didn't care what price they were paying.
I would probably opt for Chichan Itzen (sp)if I were able to do that trip.
I would opt for the long 2 hour bus ride to see Chichen Itza....to me, it's worth the trip to see one of the 7 Wonders of the New World....it's interesting, plus you get so see lots of the country....nothing in Progresso plus you are at the end of a LONG pier.....Happy Cruising...I just got back and ready to go again....
I have been to Progresso one time, and agree with the others who said "not much"..However since I was on vacation, I did my best to have fun. We decided to go that chicken pizza place in the future, so we did the beach break. That is how I learned that Corona tastes Much better in Mexico. I had to try about 8 of them to make sure that they were good. The beach is "ok"...Its not the Caribbean, but I would say the water and the sand were similar to S.Padre or maybe Florida Panhandle...
I wasn't too impressed with the beach at Progreso either, and opted for a few Coronas at a beach bar and enjoyed the view. They do taste better in Mexico for some reason.
They had a really inexpensive bus tour around the town that was nice. The bus used to run and stop at the town square area with all the vendors. There were better deals for shopping on the side streets than in the town square area.