Hello Welcome to Cruise-Chat. I am a fellow Michigander! Grew up in Bay City, and just moved from Houghton Lake to Nashville a couple years ago.
Your planning is on the late side for wanting to travel during the holidays. It may be difficult to get the cabin type you are looking at. However, Carnival, Royal Caribbean, and Norwegian would have cruises that may fit into your schedule.
Norwegian Jewel, Carnival Destiny sailing out of Miami.
Carnival Holiday out of Mobile, AL
Carnival Fantasy out of New Orleans
Carnival Fascination out of Jacksonville,FL
Carnival Inspiration, Royal Caribbean Gradeur of the Seas sailing out of Tampa, FL
Royal Caribbean Navigator of the Seas, sailing out of Ft Lauderdale, FL
None of these will require passports yet. Raised seal official birth certificates are needed. But please, if you plan on traveling in the future get those passports now. Next summer it will be mandatory for passports.